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Organisation of Higher Education in France


The system of degrees awarded in French higher education reflects a common European architecture, part of the Bologna process.

The LMD system- for licence (bachelor), master, and doctorate-is based on the number of semesters completed since leaving secondary school and their equivalent in European credits under the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS):

  • Licence = 6 semesters = 180 ECTS
  • Master = 10 semesters = 300 ECTS
  • Doctorate = 16 semesters